Maderas:Ciencia y Tecnología 2(2):2000.

Copyright © 2003, CAB International

ET- Automation of production for the wood industry.

FT- Automatizacion de la produccion para las industrias de la madera.

AU- Charpentier, P.;Ramos, M.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 225-231

AB- The paper starts with a brief general presentation on the 

    characteristics of manufacturing enterprises in the industrial wood 

    sector. Three parts follow that discuss the introduction of 

    automation to the industry. These cover (1) the function of 

    'capture', which permits the characterization of the wood product, 

    (2) the organization and development of flow in the enterprise, and 

    (3) the monitoring of production.

ET- System of reverse engineering for the design of furniture by means of

    the use of a portable coordinate measuring machine.

FT- Sistema de Ingenieria de Reversa para el diseno de muebles mediante 

    la utilizacion de una maquina de medicion de coordenadas portatil.

AU- Moraga, R.;Baesler, F.;Harrison, O.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 218-224

RE- 12 ref.

AB- The first part of the paper discusses the technique of reverse 

    engineering using portable coordinate measuring machines (CMM), and 

    the application of the technique to furniture design (with reference 

    to its potential use in Chile). Finally the results are described of 

    the practical application of the reverse engineering technique to an 

    existing bentwood chair using the FAROArm (a CMM).

ET- Heat-hardened and thermoplastic resins: a study of in situ setting in

    the manufacture of boards of MDF and laminates.

FT- Resinas termoendurecibles y termoplasticas: estudio del fraguado in-

    situ en la fabricacion de tableros mdf y laminados.

AU- Gacitua E., W.;Rials, T. G.;Ballerini A., A.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 207-217

RE- 23 ref.

AB- The first part of the paper discusses the principal processes in the 

    pressing of wood-based panels and in the setting of adhesives during 

    heat pressing. Next, a laboratory study is reported of the 

    manufacture of MDF (medium density fibreboard) and laminated panels 

    made from fibres of Pinus radiata glued with urea formaldehyde (MDF),

    phenol formaldehyde (MDF, laminates) or polyvinyl acetate (MDF, 

    laminates) resins. Resin curing was monitored in situ using a 

    dielectric method, and the thermal properties of the resins were 

    evaluated. The results are presented and analysed in detail.

ET- Populus x euroamericana (Dode) Guinier: sawmilling, drying and 

    mechanical properties.

FT- Populus x euroamericana (dode) guinier: aserrio, secado y propiedades


AU- Juacida P., R.;Cuevas D., H.;Saldivar G., E.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 185-195

RE- 25 ref.

AB- Data are reported from a study of 3 clones of Populus euramericana 

    [Populus canadensis] ('I-72', I-161' and 'I-488') introduced into the

    province of Valdivia, Chile in 1976. The 3 clones had similar wood 

    densities (0.317-0.328 g/m3) and colour, the presence of false 

    heartwood, splits at the end of logs, and irregular curvatures and 

    transverse sections. The principal difference between the clones is 

    in diameter and crown height. Clone 'I-488' was the best in terms of 

    sawnwood production and quality. All 3 clones had wood of a very low 

    mechanical resistance.

ET- Conventional drying of alamo (Populus nigra).

FT- Secado convencional de la especie alamo (Populus nigra).

AU- Sanchez A., R.;Ruiz T., P.;Ramirez R., J.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 177-184

RE- 7 ref.

AB- A laboratory-scale drying test was carried out using sawnwood of 

    (Populus nigra), which was dried from green to 10% humidity under 38 

    mm pressure. Three trials were done using loads with pieces of the 

    same size (38 x 110 x 900 mm) and number but with slightly different 

    initial basic densities (300, 308 and 325 kg/m2) and humidity 

    contents (170, 143 and 143%). A different drying schedule was used 

    for each load; the differences involved the use of different 

    temperatures, air speeds and time periods at different drying stages 

    (details are given). For each load measurements were recorded of 

    humidity gradients and final humidity, and defects were evaluated and

    classified. The best results were obtained with the 2 drying 

    schedules that used air speeds of 3 m/s and minimum temperatures <60 

    deg in the first stage of drying.

ET- Conventional drying of calden (Prosopis calden) as boards 25 mm 


FT- Secado convencional de la especie calden (Prosopis calden), en tablas

    de 25 mm. de espesor.

AU- Gutierrez D., M.;Carmona C., R.;Rallo de la B., M.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 196-206

RE- 6 ref.

AB- Sawnwood of calden (Prosopis calden [Prosopis caldenia]) 25 mm thick,

    70-145 mm wide and 0.6-2.0 m long was brought from Argentina to Chile

    to study the drying process. Some of the sawnwood was from stems and 

    some from branches. Details are given of the 3 drying schedules used 

    (which were designated as mild, moderate and strong) and of the 

    results obtained from them, in terms of speed of drying, defect 

    development and gradients of humidity. The drying speed was 10 days 

    in the most extreme schedule, and 22 and 16 days, respectively, in 

    the moderate and mild schedules. There were no important defects 

    resulting from any of the schedules.

ET- Relations between the period of pre-existence of biocontrol agents 

    and the presence of blue stain in sawnwood of Pinus radiata, under 

    laboratory conditions.

FT- Relacion entre periodo de preexistencia de biocontroladores y 

    presencia de mancha azul en madera aserrada de Pinus radiata, en 

    condiciones de laboratorio.

AU- Garcia, J. M.;Peredo, H. L.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 168-176

RE- 13 ref.

AB- The protective effectiveness of the presence 3 biocontrol agents 

    (Geotrichum candidum, G. roseum and Trichoderma viride) for various 

    periods (1, 6 or 11 days) before inoculation with blue stain fungi 

    (Aspergillus flavus, Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis pilifera, 

    Graphium, Penicillium and Sphaeropsis sapinea [Diplodia pinea]), was 

    tested using 70 x 20 x 7 mm samples of Pinus radiata sapwood prepared

    2 days after harvesting. The samples were assessed for blue stain 

    development 30 days after inoculation with the stain fungus 

    concerned. The period of pre-existence of the biocontrol agent had a 

    significant effect on the development of all 6 species of blue stain 

    only in the case of Geotrichum candidum, which gave increasing 

    control of stain development the longer it was present before blue 

    stain inoculation. For the other 2 biocontrol agents (Trichoderma 

    viride and Geotrichum roseum) the period of pre-existence had very 

    little effect on the development of any of the stain fungi, which 

    were either completely or well controlled for all the time periods of

    pre-existence concerned.

Record - 14

ET- Determination of the elastic constants of wood for ultrasound. Part 

    I: modulus of elasticity and modulus of rigidity.

FT- Determinacion de las constantes elasticas de la madera por 

    ultrasonido parte I: modulos de elasticidad y modulos de rigidez.

AU- Fuentealba, C.;Baradit, E.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 161-167

RE- 17 ref.

AB- The advantages and disadvantages of nondestructive testing for wood 

    elastic constants using ultrasonic techniques are discussed and the 

    fundamental theory involved outlined. A practical study is reported 

    using wood samples from 20-yr-old Pinus radiata from Concepcion, 

    Chile, in which mechanical and ultrasonic tests were carried out and 

    the results compared. Twenty samples were obtained from each of 5 

    trees for testing (1) mechanical compression parallel to the grain 

    (samples 50 x 50 x 200 mm), (2) mechanical compression perpendicular 

    to the grain (samples 50 x 50 x 100 mm) and (3) the propagation 

    velocity of ultrasonic waves (using cubes of dimensions 16, 20, 25, 

    30 and 50 mm cut in a radial direction). The moduli of elasticity in 

    longitudinal (L), radial (R) and tangential (T) directions calculated

    from the ultrasonic measurements were within similar ranges to those 

    obtained from the mechanical tests. Results are also reported of the 

    ultrasonic determination of moduli of rigidity in 6 directions (LT, 

    TL, RT [no data given], TR, LR, RL) but comparative results from the 

    mechanical determinations are not provided.

ET- Effect of knots and grain inclination on the propagation velocity and

    acoustic impedance of ultrasonic waves in wood of radiata pine.

FT- Efecto de nudos e inclinacion de fibras en la velocidad de 

    propagacion e impedancia acustica de ondas ultrasonicas en Madera de 

    pino radiata.

AU- Alejandro M., B. G.;Jose T., K. C.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 150-160

RE- 9 ref.

AB- This study was carried out as part of a project on the utilization of

    ultrasonic techniques in the characterization and classification of 

    wood and its basic composition. The principal objective was to 

    determine the propagation velocity and acoustic impedance of 

    ultrasonic waves in defect-free wood of radiata pine [Pinus radiata] 

    at different grain inclinations (0, 15, 30 and 45 deg ) and densities

    (low, medium and high). The results showed that both propagation 

    velocity and acoustic impedance were affected by wood density and 

    grain inclination. The effect of wood density on propagation velocity

    varied with direction (longitudinal, radial or tangential), while 

    acoustic impedance increased slightly with density in all 3 

    directions. The effect of grain inclination on propagation velocity 

    also varied with direction (parallel or tangential to the grain in 

    the radial axis, and parallel or radial in the tangential axis), each

    showing a decrease with increase in grain inclination. Acoustic 

    impedance decreased with increasing grain inclination in all 


ET- Radial and longitudinal variation of spiral grain in an adult stand 

    of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.).

FT- Variacion radial y en el fuste de la fibra revirada presente en un 

    rodal adulto de pino maritimo (Pinus pinaster Ait.,).

AU- Rodriguez M., R.;Valenzuela H., L.;Espinosa B., M.

JN- Maderas: Ciencia y Technologia

YR- 2000

VO- 2

NO- 2

PP- 140-149

RE- 13 ref.

AB- Variation in spiral grain was determined in 9 trees (3 in each crown 

    class - dominant, intermediate and suppressed) in a 44-61-yr-old 

    unmanaged stand in the Bio-Bio region of Chile. Relationships were 

    determined between the occurrence of spiral grain and distance from 

    the pith, cambial age, percentage of summer wood (latewood), ring 

    width and basic density. Spiral grain was radially distributed 

    similarly in all the trees, with grain inclination diminishing from 

    the pith to the cortex. Longitudinally, the inclination of spiral 

    grain increased with stem height. There was more spiral grain 

    inclination on the northern aspect, and this situation was more 

    marked in the crown zone (from 11.3 to 14.4 m). The occurrence of 

    spiral grain was most related to distance from the pith and cambial 

    age; there were no statistically significant differences in 

    occurrence between different crown classes.